This chapter addresses complex interactions between mobilities and citizenship in the Italian case. It presents some considerations on Italy and two categories of people perceived as essentially different from the native-born population in that their social, cultural and economic identities are described as internally homogeneous and immutable over time. The chapter focuses on the Nationality Law currently in force to assess how Italy deals with the incorporation of both emigrant and immigrant populations into national discourse as well as the polity. The chapter aims to stimulate reflection on the politics of identity and belonging in contemporary Italy and, moreover, on how both emigration and immigration critically intersect with Italy's increasing display of xenophobia and racism towards immigrants. The stable presence of foreigners attested that, even though the scale of immigrants residing in Italy waxed and waned, Italy's inclusion in the international migratory system had been a permanent factor since Unification.