This chapter examines the relationship between Italian settlers and colonial authorities, and the racial tension between Italians and Africans. At the same time, it looks at the reasons why some aspects of the experience of Italian settler colonialism fell into the oblivion and others spread the myth of Italiani brava gente. Its aim is to shed light upon the popular roots of the myth Italiani brava gente and its construction 'from below', starting from the idea of settler colonialism as the solution for the Italian poor, to Italian imperialist culture and the set of values and behaviours that the Italian returnees brought back after the end of Italian Empire. The chapter assesses the legacy of Italiani brava gente in the contemporary Italian cultural imaginary, particularly with regards to migration to Italy nowadays. The analysis centres mainly on the case of Eritrea, which was the colony with the highest concentration of Italian settlers.