The scientifi c enterprise, including the scientifi c study of the human mind, developed throughout the Renaissance and the Enlightenment and accelerated in the modern age. In opposition to this triumph of scientifi c reasoning and the development of modern, industrial civilization, the counter-philosophy of romanticism portrayed the modern world’s scientifi c and mathematical orientation as highly alienating. Romanticists denied the existence of a rational, objective order, a putative rerum natura , from which all knowledge and morality originated, and denounced the “suppression of individuality and irrational and unconscious forces in men” (Berlin [1976] 2000:54; see also Berlin 1999).