Introduction to Part II In Part I , we presented historical accounts of the relationship between alienation and affect. We turn now to contemporary research, particularly to recent advances in emotions theory, in order to link Seeman’s fi ve varieties of alienation to specifi c emotions. We will utilize a partial classifi cation of the emotions (TenHouten 2007, 2013a) that identifi es the primary, or basic, emotions, the secondary emotions (pairs of primary emotions), and the tertiary emotions (triples of primary emotions) that are associated with each variety of alienation. We show that two varieties, normlessness and cultural estrangement, each comprise two kinds. Altogether, we examine seven varieties of alienation. We begin, however, by presenting the concept of primary emotions and we adduce supporting evidence. In emotion theory, there are multiple, confl icting perspectives and approaches to primary, basic, or elementary emotions.