Introduction The last fi ve chapters have theorized the affective bases of Seeman’s (1959) proposed inventory of fi ve varieties of alienation: normlessness, meaninglessness, self-estrangement, cultural estrangement, and powerlessness. Table 11.1 summarizes the results of this analysis. We discovered that normlessness, which Seeman and many others consider a single variety of alienation, comprises two distinct subtypes, each associated with very different emotions. Normlessness 1 involves intentional norm violation and the emotion ruthlessness; it occurs even in stable societies in which the normative order is well understood. Normlessness 2 involves unintentional norm violation and the emotion discouragement; it is most apt to occur when the normative order has become destabilized.