This is an overview of transcription methods via computational means based on research conducted from 2007 to 2015 at the University of Victoria, Utrecht University and the Meertens Institute in Amsterdam, Netherlands. In particular, we have developed new computational models for analysing chant in order to continue the project of folk music transcription, initiated by Béla Bartók (1881–45), by incorporating twenty-first century technology. We have applied our established analytical and computational tools to examples of Hungarian laments, Jewish Torah cantillation and Qur’an recitation. In analysing relationships among pitch, melodic gesture and melodic scale with computational tools, we have also created a new paradigm for chant transcription.