This chapter outlines the progress made in medicine and medical science through the centuries. It illustrates the detrimental effects exerted on medical advance by these various factors. As regards the wrong attitude towards health and disease: people know that the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians, although they were interested in disease, regarded it as supernatural, and due to sort of magic influence an invasion of the body by evil spirit. The long latent period in medical progress, namely, the slowness of mankind to realize that knowledge of the structure of the human body is essential before any understanding of what really constitutes disease can be attained, is also partly responsible for the lack of rapid advance that might have been expected in this great era of Greek culture. The establishment of methods for procuring new knowledge, public action led to the inauguration of the Ministry of Health, a body which in the last twenty years has shown great development.