This chapter examines the linguistic, literate, and cultural resources brought to the activity of reading comprehension by students who we describe as linguistically diverse. These students are alternatively referred to as limited English proficient, English language learners (ELLs), culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students, or emergent bilinguals. The chapter suggests that better understandings of students in terms of their linguistic abilities and potential holds the key to developing more effective instructional methods and programs for this population of young people. The chapter presents one approach to instruction that fosters positive teacher dispositions, requires and leverages knowledge of literacy instruction, and provides ongoing opportunities to implement that knowledge. TRANSLATE, an instructional approach, embodies culturally responsive pedagogy in that it "privilege[s] language resources that students bring from their everyday linguistic practices and repertoires outside school", and sets high expectations by working with grade-level texts.