The importance of anxiety and other emotional and personality factors in sports competition has been recognized for many years. Stress refers to a complex psychobiological process that consists of three major elements: stressors, perceptions or appraisals of danger, and emotional reactions. The stress process is generally initiated by situations or circumstances that are perceived or interpreted as dangerous, potentially harmful, or frustrating. The term stressor refers to situations or circumstances that are characterized by some degree of objective physical or psychological danger. The concept of threat refers to an individual’s perception or appraisal of a situation as potentially dangerous or harmful. Anxiety states are emotional reactions that consist of a unique combination of: feelings of tension, apprehension and nervousness; unpleasant thoughts (worries), and physiological changes. Trait-State Anxiety Theory provides a general framework for examining the major variables in research on stress and anxiety, and suggests possible relationships among these variables.