By the end of the 1990s an exciting set of exchanges between analytical psychologists and psychoanalysts had begun. Theoretical and clinical materials from each side were put forth for purposes of comparison in several professional journals and at conferences. Thus in 1996 The Psychoanalytic Review published a `Symposium: post-Jungian Thought' guest edited by Andrew Samuels. During that same year the Journal of Analytical Psychology (JAP) held the ®rst of a series of conferences bringing together analytical psychologists, psychoanalysts, and historians of the ®eld. The primary focus of these conferences was to broaden and enhance dialogue among analytic schools. Then Psychoanalytic Dialogues in 2000 published a group of prominent Jungians responding to a questionnaire designed in part by Andrew Samuels, who served as liaison editor for the issue (volume 10, number 3).