The complex nature of cities means that the problem of making a sustainable city will require a complex solution: this shouldn’t put us off trying, and the preceding chapters have offered a variety of approaches.

We generally look to the past to inform our view of the future, and, in so doing, we need to analyse the ingredients that make a successful ‘place’ and work with them once again. That is not to advocate, say, a return to Victorian planning, or the Garden City movement, for example, since we are now dealing with modern issues that affect the recipe: a changing climate and the need for more people to live in a more humane city environment.