Patients whose chief complaints lie in the sexual sphere frequently have concomitant symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. These symptoms are often interpreted by the therapist as an understandable reaction to the distress of sexual incompetence or frustration. However, such an assumption is unwarranted without a detailed diagnostic assessment. The reasons are straightforward. Anxious and depressive disorders may directly cause sexual dysfunction and the alleviation of the sexual dysfunction may depend on their primary cure. Even if the sexual problem is not directly caused by the anxious or depressive states, these illnesses may well prevent the carrying out of effective therapeutic interventions. Therefore, their concurrent treatment may enhance sex therapy.