In this chapter, we first describe the results of studies that have compared young and older adults on indirect measures of memory using verbal stimuli (for discussions of experiments using nonverbal materials see Mitchell, Chapter 8, this volume; Howard & Howard, 1989), to illustrate the type of tasks that have been used and the nature of the experimental findings. We also report the results of a meta-analysis that leads us to conclude that age differences on indirect measures of memory, while smaller than those on direct measures, may indeed be real. In the final section, we consider a number of theoretical accounts of the dissociation between direct and indirect measures of memory in old age.