This chapter outlines some of the major changes in our understanding of the term 'childhood', from an academic, rights and pedagogical perspective, by taking examples from an education context. It also shares an example from practice to show how socio-cultural theory can help us deconstruct early childhood pedagogy and understanding of children's participation. There have been numerous changes in our understanding of the term 'childhood' and the expectations of children's capabilities and behaviours, which are evident from the study of the history of childhood. Moving on from childhood to children's participation and the idea of a discursive space, these can be explained using Rogoff's ideas of 'apprenticeship', 'guided participation' and 'participatory appropriation'. The chapter gives a brief account of the concept of childhood from different theoretical and academic discipline perspectives. It shows the evolving and hence the socially constructed nature of childhood which may vary depending upon the place where children live and grow.