This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book highlights five themes that are central to the historical study of the rise of summitry: the process of institutionalisation; the interplay between global, Western and regional dynamics; the interactions between multilateral and bilateral negotiations; the classic debate between agency and structure in international negotiations; and finally the ramifications of the summitry process beyond classic state diplomacy. The declarations of the summits of the most industrialised countries, for example, did not have a clear constraining character, nor did the Group of Seven (G7) insert itself in the international political system in a precise fashion. European and global governance are the subjects of intense debate and criticism about their alleged lack of legitimacy and/or democratic accountability. Study of regular international summitry helps also to better map where both European integration processes and the Cold War fit within wider global developments.