The research needed for social practice . . . is a type of action research, a comparative research of the conditions and effects of various forms of social action, and research leading to social action. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice . . . Planning starts usually with some - thing like a general idea . . . Frequently more fact-finding about the situation is required. If this first period of planning is successful, two items emerge: namely, an ‘over-all plan’ of how to reach the objective and secondly, a decision in regard to the first step of action. Usually this planning has also somewhat modified the original idea. The next period is devoted to executing the first step of the original plan . . . This is followed by certain fact-findings . . . [which] should evaluate the actions. It shows whether what has been achieved is above or below expectations. Secondly, it gives the planners a chance to learn, that is, to gather new general insight . . . thirdly, this fact-finding should serve as the basis for correctly planning the next step. Finally it serves as a basis to modify the overall plan. The next step again is composed of a circle of planning, action, reconnaissance or fact-finding for evaluating the result of the second step, for preparing the rational basis for planning the third step and for perhaps modifying again the overall plan.