This chapter considers festivals and tragedy as interwoven landscapes between familiarity and foreignness. It explores some cases of the interweaving of festival and tragedy in twentieth-century Europe and focuses on the Edinburgh International Festival (EIF) and the Festival d'Avignon, both founded in 1947 and both very prominent examples of international arts festivals in Europe. The chapter discusses five interrelated hypotheses that ought to clarify how interweaving works in these two cases. First, that there exists a strong historical and cultural correlation between tragedy and crisis. Second, those concepts of Europe emerge strongly when Europe itself faces perceived or real crises of various sorts. Third, that there is a specific relationship between tragedy and negotiation of crisis in European context. Fourth hypothesis links tragedy to production of mythical time in the context of European festivals through the concept of 'invented traditions' and, final hypothesis, attempts to link these traditions of European festivals with inherent ambiguity of tragedy.