This introduction presents an overview of key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides a picture of long-term trends in Russian energy policies, identifying challenges and analysing the prospects of these being addressed and solved by the proposed policies during the coming twenty years. It compares the ES-2030's forecasts regarding the use of nuclear power in power generation with IEA forecasts. Russian energy is a multidisciplinary topic and many social scientists follow Russian energy development from different positions. The Russian government is deeply involved in the energy sector and it has increased state ownership and control since the early 2000s, which has led to an increasing politicization of the energy assets and trade. This case has the potential of radically diminishing Russia's dominant role on European gas markets, but is also an opportunity for initiating a long-needed reform of Gazprom and Russia's domestic markets.