ABSTRACT

Organisations are confronted with a more complex and dynamic environment than ever, one that is characterised by discontinuities and an uncertain future. This condition is likely not only to continue but to intensify. The major tasks for today’s managers are to make decisions, formulate strategies, and implement strategic management systems; however, in such an environment, the imperative of ‘predict and prepare’, the foundation of the neoclassical school of management (Gharajedaghi 1999), is no longer appropriate. Corporations are now being urged to develop foresight (Hamel and Prahald 1994; Courtney 2001), to prepare for the future, not just to predict it. In addition, several governments have already engaged in national foresight activities, a trend that is also likely to accelerate (Martin and Johnson 1999).