The purpose of a superordinate or overarching goal is to capture the imagination, and hence to galvanize people to take action. A superordinate goal reflects the power of language expressed in ways that convey to people something they can believe in. Hence a superordinate goal facilitates self-management. Bottom-up goals are frequently more powerful than those that are primarily top-down because they are expressed in the language of the employees. Whereas a superordinate goal appeals primarily to affect, goal setting is first and foremost a cognitive variable. The purpose of goal setting is to make the superordinate goal concrete, to move it from emotional rhetoric to concrete action steps. Goals are also effective because they provide people with a challenge as well as feelings of accomplishment when progress is made toward goal attainment. Goals even provide meaning to otherwise meaningless tasks.