While some use the term “cost stand ards” as preferable to “standard costs,” since when has the word “ cost” been a uni form and rigid concept even in “actual” cost accounting? Is depreciation always an actual cost? Experience of those with cost codes under the N.R.A. conclusively dem onstrated that even actual costs were far from meaning the same thing in different enterprises. Historical costs are far from perfect, as Gilman has so cogently brought out in his volume.