This chapter discusses the history of the NATO Response Force (NRF) and take stock of its current incarnation. It examines how the force developed from being predominantly associated with out-of-area operations and North Atlantic Treaty Organization role in crisis management to becoming a tool for regional security and deterrence. The chapter assesses the major obstacles for the NRF, in regards to fulfilling its promises so far. It looks at the future and point to some of the dynamics and factors that will be decisive for the success of the force in the years to come. The chapter deals with more practical matters and focuses on to bigger issues of culture and deterrence policy. The root cause is the renewed Russian threat and the willingness of allies to provide necessary force contributions for deterrence. The core purposes of the NRF have thus been modified in the direction of deterrence.