This chapter considers how damage to the frontal lobes may affect problem-solving, but it will do so by looking more broadly at the role the frontal lobes play in relation to executive functions. Successful problem-solving requires both goal-directed thinking and an ability to correctly initiate, direct, and sustain attention. The ability of brain-damaged patients to monitor what is happening in the environment, and their ability to sustain their concentration and not be distracted has been examined using a variety of tasks. Successful problem-solving requires us to go beyond the information provided and engage in abstract thinking. A traditional way of assessing the ability to use and understand abstractions is to ask participants to explain proverbs, where the metaphorical meaning often conflicts with the concrete meaning. By fractionating the supervisory processes, it is possible to account for dissociations of deficits in problem-solving, and explain why a patient may be impaired on a scheduling test such as the multiple Errands test.