The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identifies three avenues through which climate change will impact human health: directly through the increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events, indirectly through changes in the ecosystem, and as they are mediated through human institutions. Bioarchaeology takes an evolutionary and biocultural approach to human health that puts these scholars in a unique position to provide nuanced perspectives on human behavioral responses in the face of these challenges; this is particularly true in the recognition that social inequality represents a significant risk factor for human health in the context of climate and culture change. Despite its potential, bioarchaeological research has not played a visible role in the scholarly or popular discourse regarding behavioral responses to climate change. In the hopes of generating further discussion and research, this chapter offers a framework—structured by these IPCC categories—for understanding the human impact of climate change in the past, highlighting potentials and acknowledging limitations for making predictions about its impacts in the future.