Between AD 800 and 1350, the western United States experienced a dry and warm period called the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). To explore the effects of the MCA on Native populations, skeletal data were analyzed from the central California database (n = 16,820). Data were compiled on skeletal indicators of stress (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, and periostitis) and violence (blunt force and sharp force trauma) in the MCA. Results indicated that there was no increase in stress or violence during the MCA with minimal differences based on sex and region. Instead, Native populations of central California were able to mitigate environmental instability through resource diversification, thereby indicating their ability to adapt through various strategies and highlighting regional differences in response to climate change