The utilization of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of human and faunal remains, coupled with the consideration of discrete environmental settings, can inform us about past responses to a multitude of social and ecological circumstances. The Inner Asian steppes have long been inhabited by people practicing a range of subsistence regimes that developed primarily into mobile pastoralism, but was characterized by discrete strategies that developed over time and place. Modern political boundaries and policies creating mobility restrictions between regions have had significant impacts on mobile pastoralist strategies in this region. Current changes in climate continue to threaten this particular way of life for many communities. This study examines individuals from three sites located in northern and central Mongolia and four sites from north-central to north-western China that were analyzed for stable isotopic information on environmental effects and dietary trends across a diverse geographic expanse that date from the Bronze Age (c. 1800–600 BCE) to Iron Age (c. 500 BCE–CE 100). The inhabitation of arid compared to more temperate environments, as well as variation in dietary intake, is evident in the results of this study. Overall, this approach offers a nuanced insight into lifeways in the Inner Asian steppes as impacted by significant variation in local environmental settings.