This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book examines the social, political and economic context within which current educational reforms have been taking place in Russia. It discusses the new ‘Law on Education’ in the Russian Federation. The book also examines the government policy and system-wide reform by pointing to the major platform upon which the Russian government has attempted to build system-wide reformation and democratization. It argues that democracy is only possible when education is built on democratic values such as free choice, self-determination and the sovereignty of the individual personality. The book presents an examination of school-based management in Russia, with particular reference to the development of schemes for student self-management. It also discusses the implications of democratization for the life of the child in the school.