The term ’school management’ was introduced in education theory in Russia only in the 1970s. The Provisional Act on State General Secondary Schools of 1991 makes the teachers’ council more democratic by transforming it into a structure of school-based management. Self-management was intended to cement a school body organizationally, to train all pupils in the skills of organizational work, and to be a means of social control. The good intentions of the Russian government and public organizations to make school life more democratic face many difficulties. The announcement that education is a top priority of the government in the new Law on Education gives us hope that the future economic revival of the society will make schools richer. Organizational freedom and the development of an orientation toward parents as customers, toward national customs, and toward a new way of life give rise to many different profiles and specializations in educational work.