Russia’s economic dependence on fossil fuels exports plays a significant role in the caution with which the country approaches the international politics of global climate change (GCC). The issue of climate politics is, first and foremost, a question of Russia’s economic development and this chapter observes that Russia’s position with respect to GCC cannot be separated from its state security concerns oriented for economic development. Plans for repopulating regions in its eastern areas illustrate the subordination of climate concerns to national economic needs. The chapter’s discussion on the environmental impact of GCC on the Russian natural environment as well as the approach taken by the Climate Doctrine of the Russian Federation shows an equivocation with the needs of economic development attributes of human security. As a result, environmental concerns, though not ignored, are manifestly subordinated to broader political and economic interests of state security. There are profound opportunities as well as challenges to the climate that arise in the development of the warming Arctic region. The future cooperation with the West on the issues of GCC will remain linked to Russia’s long-term plans for its economic development as well as its state security interests.