Africa is a major continent with various types of states and regime capacities to handle global climate change (GCC). This chapter stresses that while Africa is the lowest carbon emitter in the world, it is highly vulnerable to climate change, due to many African states having limited resources for adaptation, apart from mitigation efforts. This chapter argues that climate change poses great dangers to state and human security in many African societies. It is observed that already fragile states with minimal political and economic capacities are those that come under great challenges with climate change. In short, climate change and political fragility pose a grave challenge to human and consequently state security in Africa. Although this chapter presents an in-depth discussion on the environmental-security nexus in Sudan’s Darfur region, state and human security are under challenge in many more African societies. There are signs of an improved regional stand on GCC in international forums, but differences exist among states on how to perceive economic growth and environmental protections and how to agree on political, economic and technical strategies for efficient countermeasures to GCC challenges.