Participatory media are media where the audience – or the “people formerly known as the audience” – take an active role in media production, analysis, and dissemination processes. Active media participation has been found to be associated with feelings of efficacy and increased political participation. Additionally, participation online often comes with the same risks as offline participation, which can serve to dampen citizens’ willingness to voice opinions via social media or blogs. The success of a participatory media campaign, and its ability to incorporate the voices of those normally marginalized by mainstream media, thus hinges in part on the ability to overcome digital divides. Media participation must be examined critically. Rather than being overly celebratory of the participatory possibilities afforded by new technologies, participation by whom, in what, and to what end must be considered. The concept of media participation was mostly limited to the realm of community or alternative media.