Fierce public discussions about the quality and responsibility of the media, and news journalism in particular, are neither new nor uncommon. For a long time, the scientific debate about media accountability has focused on institutions such as press and media councils and their codes of ethics, while other forms of media regulation have gained considerably less scholarly attention. By contrast, research on less institutionalised instruments of media accountability is mostly restricted to selected media systems or notable cases. The concept of a press or media council as a voluntary institution of media self-regulation has its roots in northern and western Europe – with the oldest example coming from Sweden. The anthology Media Accountability in the Era of Post-Truth Politics: European Challenges and Perspectives aims at mapping the state of media accountability in Europe – and at highlighting perspectives for future developments in this field.