This chapter presents a critical review of the topic of development banking. It provides an overview of development banking operations through a spatial lens, providing a context for how development banks operate at the global and regional, national and sub-national levels. The chapter focuses on the topic of development banking and the related conceptual questions of the role of banks as financial intermediaries, and the role of the government as direct and indirect owners of banks. The existence of development banks in different geographies can be understood through historical, social, cultural, and political lenses, all of which provide critical insights into the institutions and all of which are elements of the broader sub-field of financial geography. By understanding that institutions can be seen as both rules of the game as well as organizations, scholars can widen the lens of analysis of how socially created entities have an impact on the material well-being of individuals in development processes.