In the Turkish planning system, three land development instruments are defined. These are: ‘voluntary method’ (private land development), ‘land readjustment’ and ‘compulsory purchase’ (public land assembly and development). LR provides contributions that cannot go further than 40% of land for social and technical infrastructure from landowners, the municipalities cannot afford the compulsory purchase, and through the voluntary method, the landowners are not willing to give a contribution percentage of more than 40%. Therefore, in the early 1990s, municipalities began to negotiate with landowners (or developers) using local spatial plans through plan notes. The experience gained from this process led to NDOs starting to be used in some large-scale projects in Turkey. These NDOs do nowadays provide larger contributions than the former N-NDOs. However, they have not been regulated in public law. There are concerns about transparency, accountability, marketisation of planning and distortion of the planning process.