This chapter describes Russia’s approach to the republics in that region since Vladimir Putin came to power, and explains what the potential for mobilisation against Russian rule in the North Caucasus amounts to. It reviews developments in Russian policies in the eastern part of North Caucasus since the coming to power of Putin. Starting with the second post-Soviet war in Chechnya from 1999 onward, Russian governance in the North Caucasus has relied heavily on the maintenance of security. Since Putin came to power, Russian policies in the eastern part of the North Caucasus have been dominated by the use of force. A policy of economic inclusion and development has been consciously pursued by the Russian leadership in the North Caucasus, in an effort to curb extremism and terrorism and thereby make the widespread use of force superfluous in the longer run. But even this potential instrument of inclusion as a counterbalance to the policies of force is becoming dysfunctional.