This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book concerns the geographical distribution of infant mortality in Great Britain, Sir George Newman pointed out that industrial areas in the North of England experienced higher than average infant mortality. When Newman began writing Infant Mortality: a Social Problem he would have been unaware that the sustained decline of infant mortality in England and Wales was probably underway and that levels would never return to those he was familiar with in the 1890s. Newman was concerned with the present position and incidence of infant mortality. He investigated the role of the occupation of women and infant mortality. At the end of the nineteenth century there had been a series of hot summers and the numbers of infant deaths had soared, so epidemic diarrhoea.