This chapter looks at illicit drugs and their control in New Zealand. It reviews the history of drug control measures in this country, and discusses the many factors that impact on drug availability. The chapter shows that many of the dynamics that exist in New Zealand, are applicable to other countries with similar political economies and culture. A well-managed drug control policy should aim at minimising the drugs with the most harmful effects, or minimising the drugs’ harmful potential. The goal of a serious drug control policy should be management of drugs, both legal and illegal, in full recognition of the complex dynamics that such a task involves. The lack of corruption within New Zealand’s policing and customs agencies is a major reason why syndicated crime in New Zealand will always remain fairly low-key by international standards. In New Zealand, factors affecting the availability or otherwise of various types of drug are only partially affected by law enforcement strategies.