Labour market participation, self-sufficiency and a small population on passive benefits have long been key policy goals in the Nordic welfare states. However, in spite of Active Labour Market Policies, commitments by the social parties and a strong work ethos, the percentage of the working age population outside the labour market has grown. This applies in particular to citizens with learning disabilities and mental health issues, as well as vulnerable, marginalized populations such as youth at risk. The Nordic welfare states – characterized by dialogue, collaboration between the social parties and an active welfare state – are all encountering increased difficulties achieving work participation and citizenship for all. In this chapter, we discuss how the problems and potential of demand- and supply-side interventions might be integrated into a guiding concept to improve the quality of work inclusion. We start with the supply-side oriented model of Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) that has dominated the Nordic countries, where the idea is to train and prepare citizens with reduced work capacity to be job-ready before entering the labour market. We then focus on demand-side approaches that pay attention to the role of employers and their needs for compensation and support. We argue that neither of these approaches have so far been successful. Instead we point towards a promising “support-side approach” that seems to be emerging. The support-side approach is characterized by public services that proactively support clients and collaborate closely with employers. We discuss the advantages and challenges of this approach, as well as its potential to meet the needs of some of the most disadvantaged citizens, and to contribute to a more inclusive working life in the Nordic countries.