This chapter reviews the complex role of health and health interventions in contexts of fragility and conflict. The evidence also shows that disruptions to health systems facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases—epidemics—and affect prevention efforts. Evidence also shows that the general deterioration of the security environment as well as the hardening of problematic gender norms can increase the risk of sexual and gender-based violence including intimate partner violence. The efforts to gain population support through the provision of health care are widespread, yet the evidence suggests that they are largely ineffective in achieving their objectives due to the complexities of providing aid in insecure contexts and their vulnerability to corruption and mismanagement. Evidence shows that gender equity is associated with lower rates of intrastate conflict. The human impact of social and political fragility is devastating: 1.8 billion people live in fragile and conflict affected states, unable to live in dignity and fulfil their potential.