The traditional security perception was questioned for its narrow approach, which failed to appropriately take into account the full scope of security threats. Brazil, India and Pakistan initially argued that the inclusion of the peace goal would blur the lines between economic development and security. The Millennium Development Goals project has also been highly criticized for neglecting justice, advancing the rule of law, supporting strong institutions, promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies. The challenges and lessons from past experiences have shaped new global processes to develop universally applicable strategies that would facilitate integrated approaches to sustainable peace and security, as well as economic, social and environmental sustainability. The relationship between peace, security, and development goes further. For decades, empirical studies have demonstrated that extreme poverty, environmental degradation, poor governance, political, social and gender-based inequalities, marginalization, and high unemployment are the root causes of conflicts.