Today, the Russian Federation is a major actor in space and outer space governance. Russia considers outer space as a strategic region to enhance its military capabilities on earth, provide intelligence and communication functions, and achieve international status and prestige as a space power. The dual role on outer space fits well within Russia’s overall foreign and security strategy which is both reactive to United States policy and simultaneously pro the United Nations and consensus-based multilateral negotiations. This chapter examines why outer space is so important for Russia. It shows how and why the Russian government’s outer space strategy and capabilities have evolved since the 1990s. The Russian state defines threats largely in traditional terms of territorial protection from military challenges and views space assets as vital for military communication and defence. Outer space is increasingly interrelated with land, sea and air and cyber domains. It is also increasingly congested with other state and non-state actors, including private companies.