This chapter focuses on the role identity played in the promotion of the arts— mostly painting— in Spain during the 1980s. Francisco Franco’s dictatorship was notoriously based on a monolithic vision of Spain as a God blessed, historically homogeneous, fiercely heroic, devotedly Catholic, and proudly chauvinistic nation. The new democratic Constitution, sanctioned in December 1978 by the Spanish people in an extremely complicated context of major political instability, great social uncertainty, dire economic crisis, crude terrorist attacks, and military and far right-winged upheaval, did not quite solve the problem—as the current situation in Catalonia clearly shows. Plus ultra is an inscription in the Spanish coat of arms dating back to the 16th century and to the expansionism of the Spanish Empire. Trading a national identity severely tarnished by its appropriation by a fascist regime for several recently revived regional and local identities associated with freedom and democracy seemed like a reasonable thing to do in the new political and social context.