‘Grounded theory’ is a well-used research design which allows researchers to develop organized, persuasive theory from wide-ranging practical investigation. In this chapter, key principles of the approach (first established by Barney Glaser and Anhelm Strauss, then further developed by a range of researchers) are examined, including the use of mixed methods, coding and theoretical saturation. Attractions of grounded theory, including its flexibility and closeness to practice, are then scrutinized in relation to the author’s own use when exploring pedagogy for ‘gifted and talented’ children. Two issues which arose from this research are critically discussed in detail: the role of published literature in grounded-theory investigation and the applicability of the notion of ‘theory’ to its outcomes. The chapter concludes with recommendations to readers who feel that grounded theory may be an appropriate design for their own research.