This chapter provides an overview of research on gender roles and gender stereotyping in advertising. Gender role stereotyping in advertising exists and although some research suggests that it has decreased over the years, the depiction of men and women in advertising still deviates from the ideal of representing both genders in a way that does not invoke stereotypes. The advertising effects of gender roles are ambiguous and research has still not clearly determined when stereotypical depictions benefit or harm a brand. Gender roles in advertising have societal effects as they uphold unwanted stereotypes, although research has not fully established whether stereotypical advertising influences gender-related values in society or whether advertising simply reflects these values. As a result, the topic is and will remain important not only for advertisers and policy makers, but for researchers as well.