Leslie Brubaker explores what it meant to be part of the wider, yet fragmentary, Mediterranean in the twelfth century. Based on surviving sources, she analyses the ‘Mediterranean mentality’ as reflected in public processions in four major cities at the time – Cairo, Constantinople, Rome and Thebes. The close comparative analysis highlights both similarities and differences, in accordance with the realities of sharing a wider geographical space and culture but inflected by the nuances of specific political and religious needs.