In this chapter, Jean-Baptiste Pettier and Kazushige Doi examine the transformation of the perception and place of “companion animals” in Japan and China in recent decades. Both societies have experienced a pet boom, with dogs and cats being the most represented species. In both countries, this evolution has been associated with a higher level of urbanisation and a decrease in the birth rate. These trends have transformed the perception of these animals and of the emotional bonds with them. As a consequence, the two countries have seen expanded public mobilisation for these species’ welfare. Examining the evolution of acceptable behaviour towards animals, this chapter traces how such mobilisation has emerged and the forms it has taken. The comparison reveals notable differences between the two countries, particularly with respect to the importance given to the international context as well as in the institutional dimensions of these transformations.