This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides a collection of scholars from diverse disciplines in law, politics, international relations, sociology, anthropology and public health to consider the challenges stemming from the illicit economic activities in China. It offers an introduction to the wide range of illicit industries in and related to China. The book explores the magnitude of fake pharmaceutical drug industry in China. It argues that Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species can influence national compliance through alternative mechanisms, which refers to non-state actors and domestic mechanisms. The books look at the following incident: In 2004, there were reports of entire multinational corporations being cloned in Greater China. The shadow bankers in turn make the loan out of funds from depositors who are typically retirees and housewives wishing to invest their money owing to a higher interest rate than banks.