This chapter explores the inner structure of Chinese human smuggling networks to understand the essence of human smuggling. It examines how illegal Chinese immigrants have been smuggled globally and how the Chinese smuggling business is operated. The problem of human trafficking and smuggling cuts across a range of development issues, from poverty to social inclusion, to justice and rule of law issues, to human security, and thus has relevance for practitioners throughout the development community. The smuggling of immigrants is a complicated and difficult operation that cannot succeed without an extremely cautious scheme and cooperation around the globe. Chinese snakeheads in the smuggling business are normally from a close social network, namely a regional association, or Tongxianghui in Chinese. Human smuggling is a global phenomenon which has remarkable geographic and organizational diversity. Smuggling operations around the world are extremely profitable, which naturally attracts the attention of organized crime.