An abstract is a summary of a research report that appears below its title. Like the title, it helps consumers of research identify articles of interest. This function of abstracts is so important that the major computerized databases in the social and behavioral sciences provide the abstracts as well as the titles of the articles they index. Many writers begin their abstracts with a brief statement of the purpose of their research. Including the full, formal titles of published measures such as tests, questionnaires, and scales in an abstract is usually inappropriate because their names take up space that could be used to convey more important information. If the primary purpose of the research is to evaluate the reliability and validity of one or more specific measures, it is appropriate to name them in the abstract as well as in the title.