This chapter reviews the perspective to include the socio-industrial metabolism and the global resource base of countries and regions such as Europe. It provides an overview of the methods used to quantify and assesses human-induced material flows, from the product level to the whole economy, considering substance and bulk-material flows. Economy-wide indicators provide information on the structure of the metabolism and allow the measurement of domestic and foreign resource use, resource productivity and physical growth. Business-level material flow analysis focuses on material flows and associated environmental pressures within a company, firm or plant. It may support material flow and stock management, enhance environmental management and provide the basis for environmental reporting. Analysing total material requirements, as well as the various specific impacts of resource use, requires significant efforts to deepen and broaden scientific findings and to build up regular monitoring.